Understanding the Brain

Sigmund Freud

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Sigmund Freud

Sigmund Freud, by Max Halberstadt, 1921
Born 6 Template:MONTHNAME 1856(1856-Template:MONTHNUMBER-06)
Freiberg in Mähren, Moravia (now part of the Czech Republic), Austrian Empire
Died Template:Death date and age
London, England, UK
Residence Austria, UK
Nationality Austrian
Fields Neurology
Institutions University of Vienna
Alma mater University of Vienna
Known for Psychoanalysis
Influences Breuer, Charcot, Darwin, Dostoyevsky, Goethe, Haeckel, Hartmann, Jackson, Jacobsen, Kant, Mayer, Nietzsche, Schopenhauer, Shakespeare, Sophocles
Influenced Eugen Bleuler, John Bowlby, Viktor Frankl, Anna Freud, Otto Gross, Arthur Janov, Ernest Jones, Carl Jung, Melanie Klein, Jacques Lacan, Fritz Perls, Otto Rank, Wilhelm Reich
Notable awards Goethe Prize

Sigmund Freud (German pronunciation: [ˈziːkmʊnt ˈfʁɔʏt]), born Sigismund Schlomo Freud (6 May 1856 – 23 September 1939), was an Austrian neurologist who founded the discipline of psychoanalysis. Freud is best known for his theories of the unconscious mind and the mechanism of repression, and for creating the clinical method of psychoanalysis for investigating the mind and treating psychopathology through dialogue between a patient (or "analysand") and a psychoanalyst.

Freud established sexual drives as the primary motivational forces of human life, developed therapeutic techniques such as the use of free association, discovered the phenomenon of transference in the therapeutic relationship and established its central role in the analytic process; he interpreted dreams as sources of insight into unconscious desires. He was an early neurological researcher into cerebral palsy, aphasia and microscopic neuroanatomy, and a prolific essayist, drawing on psychoanalysis to contribute to the history, interpretation and critique of culture.

Early life

Sigismund Schlomo Freud was born on 6 May 1856, to Jewish Galician parents in the Moravian town of Příbor (German: Freiberg), then part of the Austrian Empire (1804–1867), now the Czech Republic.[1] His father, Jacob Freud (1815–1896,[2] was 41, a wool merchant, and had two children by a previous marriage. His mother, Amalié (née Nathansohn), the second wife of Jakob, was 21. He was the first of their eight children and, in accordance with tradition, his parents favored him over his siblings from the early stages of his childhood. Freud was born with a caul, which the family accepted as a positive omen.[3]

Despite their poverty, the Freuds ensured Sigmund’s schooling and education. Due to the Panic of 1857, Freud's father lost his business, and the family moved to Leipzig before settling in Vienna. In 1865, the 9-year-old student Freud entered the Leopoldstädter Kommunal-Realgymnasium, a prominent high school. He proved an outstanding pupil, and graduated the Matura in 1873 with honors. Freud had planned to study law, but instead joined the medical faculty at the University of Vienna to study under Darwinist Professor Karl Claus.[4] At that time, the eel life cycle was unknown and Freud spent four weeks at the Austrian zoological research station in Trieste, dissecting hundreds of eels in an unsuccessful search for their male reproductive organs.

Freud greatly admired the philosopher Franz Brentano, known for his theory of perception, as well as Theodor Lipps, who was one of the main supporters of the ideas of the unconscious and empathy.[5]

Freud read Friedrich Nietzsche as a student, and bought his collected works in 1900, the year of Nietzsche's death; Freud told Wilhelm Fliess that he hoped to find in Nietzsche "the words for much that remains mute in me." According to Peter Gay, however, Freud treated Nietzsche's writings "as texts to be resisted far more than to be studied"; immediately after reporting to Fliess that he had bought Nietzsche's works, Freud added that he had not yet opened them.[6] Students of Freud began to point out analogies between his work and that of Nietzsche almost as soon as he developed a following.[7]

Freud began smoking tobacco at age 24; initially a cigarette smoker, he became a cigar smoker. Freud believed that smoking enhanced his capacity to work, and believed he could exercise self-discipline in moderating his tobacco-smoking; yet, despite health warnings from Fliess, and to the detriment of his health, Freud remained a smoker, eventually suffering a buccal cancer.[8]

Carl Jung initiated the rumor that a romantic relationship may have developed between Freud and his sister-in-law, Minna Bernays, who had moved into Freud's apartment at 19 Berggasse in 1896.[9] Hans Eysenck suggests that the affair occurred, resulting in an aborted pregnancy for Miss Bernays.[10] The publication in 2006 of a Swiss hotel log, dated 13 August 1898, has been regarded by some Freudian scholars (including Peter Gay) as showing that there was a factual basis to these rumors.[11]

Freud was a "partially assimilated, mostly secular Jew."[12] According to biographer Ernest Jones "Freud's Jewishness contributed greatly to his work and his firm convictions about his findings. Freud often referred to his ability to stand alone, if need be, without wavering or surrendering his intellectual and scientific discoveries, and he attributed this ability to his irreligious but strong Jewish identity in an antisemitic society, whereby he was accustomed to a marginal status and being set aside as different."[13] Freud once described himself as "an author who is ignorant of the language of holy writ, who is completely estranged from the religion of his fathers—as well as from every other religion", but who remains "in his essential nature a Jew, and who has no desire to alter that nature".[14]

Development of psychoanalysis

Charcot demonstrates hypnosis on a "hysterical" patient, "Blanche" (Marie Wittman). Charcot questioned his own work on hysteria towards the end of his life.[15]

In October 1885, Freud went to Paris on a fellowship to study with Jean-Martin Charcot, a renowned neurologist and researcher of hypnosis. He was later to remember the experience of this stay as catalytic in turning him toward the practice of medical psychopathology and away from a less financially promising career in neurology research.[16] Charcot specialised in the study of hysteria and susceptibility to hypnosis, which he frequently demonstrated with patients on stage in front of an audience. Freud later turned away from hypnosis as a potential cure for mental illness, instead favouring free association and dream analysis.[17]

After opening his own medical practice, specializing in neurology, Freud married Martha Bernays in 1886. Her father Berman was the son of Isaac Bernays, chief rabbi in Hamburg. The couple had six children (Mathilde, 1887; Jean-Martin, 1889; Olivier, 1891; Ernst, 1892; Sophie, 1893; Anna, 1895).

After experimenting with hypnosis on his neurotic patients, Freud abandoned it as ineffective. He instead adopted a form of treatment where the patient talked through his or her problems. This came to be known as the "talking cure" and its goal was to locate and release powerful emotional energy that had initially been rejected or imprisoned in the unconscious mind. Freud called this psychic action “repression”, and he believed that it was an impediment to the normal functioning of the psyche, even capable of causing physical retardation which he described as "psychosomatic". The term "talking cure" was initially coined by a patient, Anna O., who was treated by Freud's colleague Josef Breuer. The "talking cure" is widely seen as the basis of psychoanalysis.[18]

Ornate staircase, a landing with an interior door and window, staircase continuing up
Approach to Freud's consulting rooms at Berggasse

After the publication of The Interpretation of Dreams in November 1899,[19] interest in his theories began to grow, and a circle of supporters developed. However, Freud often clashed with those supporters who criticized his theories, the most famous of whom was Carl Jung. Part of the disagreement between them was due to Jung's interest in and commitment to religion, which Freud saw as unscientific.[20]

Karen Horney, a pupil of Karl Abraham, criticized Freud's theory of femininity, leading him to defend it against her. Horney's challenge to Freud's theories, along with that of Melanie Klein, produced the first psychoanalytic debate on femininity. Ernest Jones, although usually an "ultra-orthodox" Freudian, sided with Horney and Klein. Horney was Freud's most outspoken critic, although her and Jones's disagreement with Freud was over how to interpret penis envy rather than whether it existed. Horney understood Freud's conception of the castration complex as a theory about the biological nature of women, one in which women were biologically castrated men, and rejected it as scientifically unsatisfying.[21]

In his forties, Freud experienced several, probably psychosomatic, medical problems, including depression and heart irregularities that fuelled a superstitious belief that he would die at the age of 51.[22] Around this time Freud began exploring his own dreams, memories, and the dynamics of his personality development. During this self-analysis, he came to realize a hostility he felt towards his father, Jacob Freud, who had died in 1896. He also became convinced that he had developed sexual feelings towards his mother in infancy ("between two and two and a half years").[23] Richard Webster argues that Freud’s account of his self-analysis shows that he “had remembered only a long train journey, from whose duration he deduced that he might have seen his mother undressing”, and that Freud’s memory was an artificial reconstruction.[24] Freud considered that emotionally difficult period to have been the most creative period of his life.[citation needed]


Freud used pseudonyms in his case histories. Some patients known by pseudonyms were Cäcilie M. (Anna von Lieben); Dora (Ida Bauer, 1882–1945); Frau Emmy von N. (Fanny Moser); Fräulein Elisabeth von R. (Ilona Weiss);[25] Fräulein Katharina (Aurelia Kronich); Fräulein Lucy R.; Little Hans (Herbert Graf, 1903–1973); Rat Man (Ernst Lanzer, 1878–1914); Enos Fingy (Joshua Wild, 1878–1920);[26] and Wolf Man (Sergei Pankejeff, 1887–1979). Other famous patients included H.D. (1886–1961); Emma Eckstein (1865–1924); Gustav Mahler (1860–1911), with whom Freud had only a single, extended consultation; and Princess Marie Bonaparte.

Several writers have criticized both Freud's clinical efforts and his accounts of them. Hans Eysenck writes that Freud consistently mis-diagnosed his patients and fraudulently misrepresented case histories.[10] Frederick Crews writes that "...even applying his own indulgent criteria, with no allowance for placebo factors and no systematic followup to check for relapses, Freud was unable to document a single unambiguously efficacious treatment".[27] Mikkel Borch-Jacobsen writes that historians of psychoanalysis have shown "that things did not happen in the way Freud and his authorised biographers told us"; he cites Han Israëls's view that "Freud...was so confident in his first theories that he publicly boasted of therapeutic successes that he had not yet obtained." Freud, in that interpretation, was forced to provide explanations for his abandonment of those theories that concealed his real reason, which was that the therapeutic benefits he expected did not materialise; he knew that his patients were not cured, but "did not hesitate to build grand theories on these non-existent foundations."[28]


Group photo 1909 in front of Clark University. Front row: Sigmund Freud, G. Stanley Hall, Carl Jung; back row: Abraham A. Brill, Ernest Jones, Sándor Ferenczi

Freud spent most of his life in Vienna. From 1891 until 1938 he and his family lived in an apartment at Berggasse 19 near the Innere Stadt or historical quarter of Vienna. As a docent of the University of Vienna, Freud, since the mid-1880s, had been delivering lectures on his theories to small audiences every Saturday evening at the lecture hall of the university's psychiatric clinic.[29] His work generated a considerable degree of interest from a small group of Viennese physicians. From the autumn of 1902 and shortly after his promotion to the honourific title of außerordentlicher Professor,[30] a small group of followers formed around him, meeting at his apartment every Wednesday afternoon, to discuss issues relating to psychology and neuropathology.[31] This group was called the Wednesday Psychological Society (Psychologischen Mittwoch-Gesellschaft) and it marked the beginnings of the worldwide psychoanalytic movement.[32]

This discussion group was founded around Freud at the suggestion of the physician Wilhelm Stekel. Stekel had studied medicine at the University of Vienna under Richard von Krafft-Ebing. His conversion to psychoanalysis is variously attributed to his successful treatment by Freud for a sexual problem or as a result of his reading The Interpretation of Dreams, to which he subsequently gave a positive review in the Viennese daily newspaper Neues Wiener Tagblatt.[33] The other three original members whom Freud invited to attend, Alfred Adler, Max Kahane, and Rudolf Reitler, were also physicians [34] and all five were Jewish by birth.[35] Both Kahane and Reitler were childhood friends of Freud. Kahane had attended the same secondary school and both he and Reitler went to university with Freud. They had kept abreast of Freud's developing ideas through their attendance at his Saturday evening lectures.[36] In 1901, Kahane, who first introduced Stekel to Freud's work,[29] had opened an out-patient psychotherapy institute of which he was the director in Bauernmarkt, in Vienna.[31] In the same year his medical textbook, Outline of Internal Medicine for Students and Practicing Physicians was published. In it he provided an outline of Freud's psychoanalytic method.[37] Kahane broke with Freud and left the Wednesday Psychological Society in 1907 for unknown reasons and in 1923 he committed suicide.[38] Reitler was the director of an establishment providing thermal cures in Dorotheergasse which had been founded in 1901.[31] He died prematurely in 1917.[39] Adler, regarded as the most formidable intellect among the early Freud circle, was a socialist who in 1898 had written a health manual for the tailoring trade. He was particularly interested in the potential social impact of psychiatry.[39]

Max Graf, a Viennese musicologist and father of "Little Hans", who had first encountered Freud in 1900 and joined the Wednesday group soon after its initial inception,[40] described the ritual and atmosphere of the early meetings of the society:
The gatherings followed a definite ritual. First one of the members would present a paper. Then, black coffee and cakes were served; cigar and cigarettes were on the table and were consumed in great quantities. After a social quarter of an hour, the discussion would begin. The last and decisive word was always spoken by Freud himself. There was the atmosphere of the foundation of a religion in that room. Freud himself was its new prophet who made the heretofore prevailing methods of psychological investigation appear superficial.[39]
Carl Jung

By 1906 the group had grown to sixteen members, including Otto Rank, who was employed as the group's paid secretary.[41] Also in that year Freud began correspondence with Carl Gustav Jung who was then an assistant to Eugen Bleuler at the Burghölzli Mental Hospital in Zurich.[42] In March 1907 Jung and Ludwig Binswanger, also a Swiss psychaitrist, travelled to Vienna to visit Freud and attend the discussion group. Thereafter they established a small psychoanalytic group in Zurich. In 1908, reflecting its growing institutional status, the Wednesday group was renamed the Vienna Psychoanalytic Society.[43]

Some of Freud's followers subsequently withdrew from the original psychoanalytic society and founded their own divergent schools. The most famous of these are Adler and Jung.

From 1909, Adler's views on topics such as neurosis began to differ markedly from those held by Freud. As Adler's position appeared increasingly incompatible with Freudianism a series of confrontations between their respective viewpoints took place at the meetings of the Viennese Psychoanalytic Society in January and February 1911. In February 1911 Adler, then the President of the society, resigned his position. At this time Stekel also resigned his position as vice-president of the society. Adler finally left the Freudian group altogether in June 1911 to found his own heretical organisation with nine other members who had also resigned from the group.[44] This new formation was initially called Society for Free Psychoanalysis but it was soon renamed the Society for Individual Psychology. In the period after World War I, Adler became increasingly associated with the psychological position which he devised and that is termed individual psychology.[45]

In 1912 Jung published Wandlungen und Symbole der Libido (published in English in 1916 as Psychology of the Unconscious) and it became clear that his views were taking a direction quite different from those of Freud. To distinguish his system from psychoanalysis, Jung called it analytical psychology. In the autumn of 1913 the relationship between Freud and Jung broke down irretrievably and the Swiss psychoanalytic organisation fell into disrepair.[46]

Struggle with cancer

In February 1923, Freud detected a leukoplakia, a benign growth associated with heavy smoking, on his mouth. Freud initially kept this secret, but in April 1923 he informed Ernest Jones, telling him that the growth had been removed. Freud consulted the dermatologist Maximilian Steiner, who advised him to quit smoking but lied about the growth's seriousness, minimizing its importance. Freud later saw Felix Deutsch, who saw that the growth was cancerous; he identified it to Freud using the euphemism "a bad leukoplakia" instead of the technical diagnosis epithelioma. Deutsch advised Freud to stop smoking and have the growth excised. Freud was treated by Marcus Hajek, a rhinologist whose competence he had previously questioned. Hajek performed an unnecessary cosmetic surgery in his clinic's outpatient department. Freud bled during and after the operation, and may narrowly have escaped death. Freud subsequently saw Deutsch again. Deutsch saw that further surgery would be required, but refrained from telling Freud that he had cancer because he was worried that Freud might wish to commit suicide.[47]

Escape from Nazism

In 1930, Freud was awarded the Goethe Prize in recognition of his contributions to psychology and to German literary culture. In January 1933, the Nazis took control of Germany, and Freud's books were prominent among those they burned and destroyed. Freud quipped: “What progress we are making. In the Middle Ages they would have burned me. Now, they are content with burning my books.”[48] On 12 March 1938, Nazi Germany annexed Austria in the Anschluss. This led to violent outbursts of anti-Semitism in Vienna, and Freud and his family received visits from the Gestapo. Freud decided to go into exile "to die in freedom". He was fortuitously assisted by Anton Sauerwald, a Nazi official given control over Freud's assets in Austria.[49] Freud's four sisters perished in Nazi concentration camps.

At the University of Vienna, Sauerwald had been a student of Professor Josef Herzig, who often played cards with Freud. Sauerwald did not inform his Nazi superiors that Freud had many secret bank accounts and disobeyed a Nazi directive to have Freud's books on psychoanalysis destroyed, instead smuggling them with an accomplice to the Austrian national library, where they were hidden.[49] Finally, dismayed at being ordered to transform Freud's home into an institute for the study of Aryan superiority, Sauerwald signed Freud's exit visa.[49] In June 1938, Freud and his family left Vienna aboard the Orient Express train. They settled in London, at 20 Maresfield Gardens, Hampstead. In the United Kingdom, Freud told a newspaper that “all my money and property in Vienna is gone”; he did not mention his secret bank accounts. When Anton Sauerwald was tried for stealing Freud’s secret wealth after the war, Anna Freud intervened to protect Sauerwald. She disclosed to her cousin Harry Freud, a US army officer who had had Sauerwald arrested, that: "[The] truth is that we really owe our lives and our freedom to ,... [Sauerwald]. Without him we would never have got away." Sauerwald was then released from U.S. custody.[49]


In September 1939, Freud, who was suffering from cancer and in severe pain, persuaded his doctor and friend Max Schur to help him commit suicide. After reading Honoré de Balzac's La Peau de chagrin in a single sitting, Freud asked him, “Schur, you remember our ‘contract’ not to leave me in the lurch when the time had come. Now it is nothing but torture and makes no sense.”[50] When Schur replied that he had not forgotten, Freud said, “I thank you.” and then “Talk it over with Anna, and if she thinks it’s right, then make an end of it.”[50] Anna Freud wanted to postpone her father’s death, but Schur convinced her it was pointless to keep him alive, and on 21 and 22 September administered doses of morphine that resulted in Freud's death on 23 September 1939.[50] Three days after his death, Freud's body was cremated at Golders Green Crematorium in England during a service attended by Austrian refugees, including the author Stefan Zweig. His ashes were later placed in the crematorium's columbarium. They rest in an ancient Greek urn that Freud received as a gift from Marie Bonaparte, and which he had kept in his study in Vienna for many years. After his wife Martha's death in 1951, her ashes were also placed in the urn.


Freud has been influential in two related but distinct ways: he simultaneously developed a theory of the human mind's organization and internal operations and a theory that human behavior both conditions and results from how the mind is organized. This led him to favor certain clinical techniques for trying to help cure mental illness. He theorized that personality is developed by a person's childhood experiences.

Early work

Sigmund Freud memorial in Hampstead, North London. Sigmund and Anna Freud lived at 20 Maresfield Gardens, near this statue. Their house is now a museum dedicated to Freud's life and work.[51] The building behind the statue is the Tavistock Clinic, a major psychological health care institution.

Freud began his study of medicine at the University of Vienna in 1873.[52] He took almost nine years to complete his studies, due to his interest in neurophysiological research, specifically investigation of the sexual anatomy of eels and the physiology of the fish nervous system. He entered private practice in neurology for financial reasons, receiving his M.D. degree in 1881 at the age of 25.[53] He was also an early researcher in the field of cerebral palsy, which was then known as "cerebral paralysis." He published several medical papers on the topic, and showed that the disease existed long before other researchers of the period began to notice and study it. He also suggested that William Little, the man who first identified cerebral palsy, was wrong about lack of oxygen during birth being a cause. Instead, he suggested that complications in birth were only a symptom.

Freud hoped that his research would provide a solid scientific basis for his therapeutic technique. The goal of Freudian therapy, or psychoanalysis, was to bring repressed thoughts and feelings into consciousness in order to free the patient from suffering repetitive distorted emotions.

Classically, the bringing of unconscious thoughts and feelings to consciousness is brought about by encouraging a patient to talk in free association and to talk about dreams. Another important element of psychoanalysis is lesser direct involvement on the part of the analyst, which is meant to encourage the patient to project thoughts and feelings onto the analyst. Through this process, transference, the patient can discover and resolve repressed conflicts, especially childhood conflicts involving parents.[54]

The origin of Freud's early work with psychoanalysis can be linked to Josef Breuer. Freud credited Breuer with opening the way to the discovery of the psychoanalytical method by his treatment of the case of Anna O. In November 1880 Breuer was called in to treat a highly intelligent 21-year-old woman (Bertha Pappenheim) for a persistent cough which he diagnosed as hysterical. He found that while nursing her dying father she had developed a number of transitory symptoms, including visual disorders and paralysis and contractures of limbs, which he also diagnosed as hysterical. Breuer began to see his patient almost every day as the symptoms increased and became more persistent, and observed that she entered states of absence. He found that when, with his encouragement, she told fantasy stories in her evening states of absence her condition improved, and most of her symptoms had disappeared by April 1881. However, following the death of her father in that month her condition deteriorated again. Breuer recorded that some of the symptoms eventually remitted spontaneously, and that full recovery was achieved by inducing her to recall events that had precipitated the occurrence of a specific symptom.</i>[55][56] In the years immediately following Breuer's treatment, Anna O. spent three short periods in sanatoria with the diagnosis "hysteria" with "somatic symptoms,"[57] and some authors have challenged Breuer's published account of a cure.[58][59][60] Richard Skues rejects this interpretation, which he sees as stemming from both Freudian and anti-psychoanalytical revisionism, that regards both Breuer's narrative of the case as unreliable and his treatment of Anna O. as a failure.[61]

In the early 1890s Freud used a form of treatment based on the one that Breuer had described to him, modified by what he called his "pressure technique" and his newly developed analytic technique of interpretation and reconstruction. According to Freud's later accounts of this period, as a result of his use of this procedure most of his patients in the mid-1890s reported early childhood sexual abuse. He believed these stories, but then came to believe that they were fantasies. He explained these at first as having the function of "fending off" memories of infantile masturbation, but in later years he wrote that they represented Oedipal fantasies.[62]

Another version of events focuses on Freud's proposing that unconscious memories of infantile sexual abuse were at the root of the psychoneuroses in letters to Wilhelm Fliess in October 1895, before he reported that he had actually discovered such abuse among his patients.[63] In the first half of 1896 Freud published three papers stating that he had uncovered, in all of his current patients, deeply repressed memories of sexual abuse in early childhood.[64] In these papers Freud recorded that his patients were not consciously aware of these memories, and must therefore be present as unconscious memories if they were to result in hysterical symptoms or obsessional neurosis. The patients were subjected to considerable pressure to "reproduce" infantile sexual abuse "scenes" that Freud was convinced had been repressed into the unconscious.[65] Patients were generally unconvinced that their experiences of Freud's clinical procedure indicated actual sexual abuse. He reported that even after a supposed "reproduction" of sexual scenes the patients assured him emphatically of their disbelief.[66]

As well as his pressure technique, Freud's clinical procedures involved analytic inference and the symbolic interpretation of symptoms to trace back to memories of infantile sexual abuse.[67] His claim of one hundred percent confirmation of his theory only served to reinforce previously expressed reservations from his colleagues about the validity of findings obtained through his suggestive techniques.[68]


As a medical researcher, Freud was an early user and proponent of cocaine as a stimulant as well as analgesic. He believed that cocaine was a cure for many mental and physical problems, and in his 1884 paper "On Coca" he extolled its virtues. Between 1883 and 1887 he wrote several articles recommending medical applications, including its use as an antidepressant. He narrowly missed out on obtaining scientific priority for discovering its anesthetic properties of which he was aware but had mentioned only in passing.[69] (Karl Koller, a colleague of Freud's in Vienna, received that distinction in 1884 after reporting to a medical society the ways cocaine could be used in delicate eye surgery.) Freud also recommended cocaine as a cure for morphine addiction.[70] He had introduced cocaine to his friend Ernst von Fleischl-Marxow who had become addicted to morphine taken to relieve years of excruciating nerve pain resulting from an infection acquired while performing an autopsy. However, his claim that Fleischl-Marxow was cured of his addiction was premature, though he never acknowledged he had been at fault. Fleischl-Marxow developed an acute case of "cocaine psychosis", and soon returned to using morphine, dying a few years later after more suffering from intolerable pain.[71]

The application as an anesthetic turned out to be one of the few safe uses of cocaine, and as reports of addiction and overdose began to filter in from many places in the world, Freud's medical reputation became somewhat tarnished.[72]

After the "Cocaine Episode"[73] Freud ceased to publicly recommend use of the drug, but continued to take it himself occasionally for depression, migraine and nasal inflammation during the early 1890s, before giving it up in 1896.[74] In this period he came under the influence of his friend and confidant Fliess, who recommended cocaine for the treatment of the so-called "nasal reflex neurosis". Fliess, who operated on the noses of several of his own patients, also performed operations on Freud and on one of Freud's patients whom he believed to be suffering from the disorder, Emma Eckstein. However, the surgery proved disastrous.[75]

Some critics[who?] have suggested that much of Freud's early psychoanalytical theory was a by-product of his cocaine use.[76]

The Unconscious

Freud argued for the importance of the unconscious mind in understanding conscious thought and behavior. Yet, as historian of psychology Mark Altschule concluded, "It is difficult—or perhaps impossible—to find a nineteenth-century psychologist or psychiatrist who did not recognize unconscious cerebration as not only real but of the highest importance."[77]

Freud's theory of dreams has been compared to Plato's. Ernest Gellner writes that, "Plato and Freud hold virtually the same theory of dreams",[78] but Michel Foucault denies any such equivalence: "The sentence 'dreams fulfil desires' may have been repeated throughout the centuries; it is not the same statement in Plato and in Freud."[79] Freud's dream theory was criticized during his life by Lydiard H. Horton, who in 1915 read a paper at a joint meeting of the American Psychological Association and the New York Academy of Sciences that called Freud's dream theory "dangerously inaccurate" and suggested that "rank confabulations...appear to hold water, psychoanalytically".[80]

Freud developed his first topology of the psyche in The Interpretation of Dreams (1899) in which he proposed that the unconscious exists and described a method for gaining access to it. The preconscious was described as a layer between conscious and unconscious thought; its contents could be accessed with a little effort. One key factor in the operation of the unconscious is "repression". Freud believed that many people "repress" painful memories deep into their unconscious mind. Although Freud later attempted to find patterns of repression among his patients in order to derive a general model of the mind, he also observed that repression varies among individual patients. Freud also argued that the act of repression did not take place within a person's consciousness. Thus, people are unaware of the fact that they have buried memories or traumatic experiences.

Later, Freud distinguished between three concepts of the unconscious: the descriptive unconscious, the dynamic unconscious, and the system unconscious. The descriptive unconscious referred to all those features of mental life of which people are not subjectively aware. The dynamic unconscious, a more specific construct, referred to mental processes and contents that are defensively removed from consciousness as a result of conflicting attitudes. The system unconscious denoted the idea that when mental processes are repressed, they become organized by principles different from those of the conscious mind, such as condensation and displacement.

Eventually, Freud abandoned the idea of the system unconscious, replacing it with the concept of the id, ego, and super-ego. Throughout his career, however, he retained the descriptive and dynamic conceptions of the unconscious.

Psychosexual development

Freud hoped to prove that his model was universally valid and thus turned to ancient mythology and contemporary ethnography for comparative material. Freud named his new theory the Oedipus complex after the famous Greek tragedy Oedipus Rex by Sophocles. "I found in myself a constant love for my mother, and jealousy of my father. I now consider this to be a universal event in childhood," Freud said. Freud sought to anchor this pattern of development in the dynamics of the mind. Each stage is a progression into adult sexual maturity, characterized by a strong ego and the ability to delay gratification (cf. Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality). He used the Oedipus conflict to point out how much he believed that people desire incest and must repress that desire. The Oedipus conflict was described as a state of psychosexual development and awareness. He also turned to anthropological studies of totemism and argued that totemism reflected a ritualized enactment of a tribal Oedipal conflict.[81]

Traditional accounts have held that, as a result of frequent reports from his patients, in the mid-1890s Freud posited that psychoneuroses were a consequence of early childhood sexual abuse.[82] More specifically, in three papers published in 1896 he contended that unconscious memories of sexual abuse in infancy are a necessary precondition for the development of adult psychoneuroses. However, examination of Freud's original papers has revealed that his clinical claims were not based on patients' reports but were findings deriving from his analytical clinical methodology, which at that time included coercive procedures.[83][84][85][86][87] He privately expressed his loss of faith in the theory to his friend Wilhelm Fliess in September 1897, giving several reasons, including that he had not been able to bring a single case to a successful conclusion.[88] In 1906, while still maintaining that his earlier claims to have uncovered early childhood sexual abuse events remained valid, he postulated a new theory of the occurrence of unconscious infantile fantasies.[89] He had incorporated his notions of unconscious fantasies in The Interpretation of Dreams (1900), but did not explicitly relate his seduction theory claims to the Oedipus theory until 1925.[90] Notwithstanding his abandonment of the seduction theory, Freud always recognized that some neurotics had experienced childhood sexual abuse.

Freud also believed that the libido developed in individuals by changing its object, a process codified by the concept of sublimation. He argued that humans are born "polymorphously perverse", meaning that any number of objects could be a source of pleasure. He further argued that, as humans develop, they become fixated on different and specific objects through their stages of development—first in the oral stage (exemplified by an infant's pleasure in nursing), then in the anal stage (exemplified by a toddler's pleasure in evacuating his or her bowels), then in the phallic stage. Freud argued that children then passed through a stage in which they fixated on the mother as a sexual object (known as the Oedipus Complex) but that the child eventually overcame and repressed this desire because of its taboo nature. (The term 'Electra complex' is sometimes used to refer to such a fixation on the father, although Freud did not advocate its use.) The repressive or dormant latency stage of psychosexual development preceded the sexually mature genital stage of psychosexual development.

Id, ego, and super-ego

In his later work, Freud proposed that the human psyche could be divided into three parts: Id, ego, and super-ego. Freud discussed this model in the 1920 essay Beyond the Pleasure Principle, and fully elaborated upon it in The Ego and the Id (1923), in which he developed it as an alternative to his previous topographic schema (i.e., conscious, unconscious, and preconscious). The id is the impulsive, child-like portion of the psyche that operates on the "pleasure principle" and only takes into account what it wants and disregards all consequences.

Freud acknowledged that his use of the term Id (das Es, "the It") derives from the writings of Georg Groddeck.[citation needed]

The super-ego is the moral component of the psyche, which takes into account no special circumstances in which the morally right thing may not be right for a given situation. The rational ego attempts to exact a balance between the impractical hedonism of the id and the equally impractical moralism of the super-ego; it is the part of the psyche that is usually reflected most directly in a person's actions. When overburdened or threatened by its tasks, it may employ defense mechanisms including denial, repression, and displacement.

Life and death drives

Freud believed that people are driven by two conflicting central desires: the life drive (libido or Eros) (survival, propagation, hunger, thirst, and sex) and the death drive. The death drive was also termed "Thanatos", although Freud did not use that term; "Thanatos" was introduced in this context by Paul Federn.[91]

In Beyond the Pleasure Principle, Freud inferred the existence of the death instinct. Its premise was a regulatory principle that has been described as "the principle of psychic inertia", "the Nirvana principle", and "the conservatism of instinct". Its background was Freud's earlier Project for a Scientific Psychology, where he had defined the principle governing the mental apparatus as its tendency to divest itself of quantity or to reduce tension to zero. Freud had been obliged to abandon that definition, since it proved to be adequate only to the most rudimentary kinds of mental functioning, and replaced the idea that the apparatus tends toward a level of zero tension with the idea that it tends toward a minimum level of tension.[92]

Freud in effect readopted the original definition in Beyond the Pleasure Principle, this time applying it to a different principle. He asserted that on certain occasions the mind acts as though could eliminate tension entirely, or in effect to reduce itself to a state of extinction; his key evidence for this was the existence of the compulsion to repeat. Examples of such repetition included the dream life of traumatic neurotics and children's play. In the phenomenon of repetition, Freud saw a psychic trend to work over earlier impressions, to master them and derive pleasure from them, a trend was prior to the pleasure principle but not opposed to it. In addition to that trend, however, there was also a principle at work that was opposed to, and thus "beyond" the pleasure principle. If repetition is a necessary element in the binding of energy or adaptation, when carried to inordinate lengths it becomes a means of abandoning adaptations and reinstating earlier or less evolved psychic positions. By combining this idea with the hypothesis that all repetition is a form of discharge, Freud reached the conclusion that the compulsion to repeat is an effort to restore a state that is both historically primitive and marked by the total draining of energy: death.[92]


Freud regarded the monotheistic god as an illusion based upon the infantile emotional need for a powerful, supernatural pater familias. He maintained that religion — once necessary to restrain man’s violent nature in the early stages of civilization — in modern times, can be set aside in favor of reason and science.[93] “Obsessive Actions and Religious Practices” (1907) notes the likeness between faith (religious belief) and neurotic obsession.[94] Totem and Taboo (1913) proposes that society and religion begin with the patricide and eating of the powerful paternal figure, who then becomes a revered collective memory.[95] In Civilization and its Discontents (1930), he describes religion as an “oceanic sensation” he never experienced, (despite being a self-identified cultural Jew).[96] Moses and Monotheism (1937) proposes that Moses was the tribal pater familias, killed by the Jews, who psychologically coped with the patricide with a reaction formation conducive to their establishing monotheist Judaism;[97] analogously, he described the Roman Catholic rite of Holy Communion as cultural evidence of the killing and devouring of the sacred father.[98] Moreover, he perceived religion, with its suppression of violence, as mediator of the societal and personal, the public and the private, conflicts between Eros and Thanatos, the forces of life and death.[99] Later works indicate Freud’s pessimism about the future of civilization, which he noted in the 1931 edition of Civilization and its Discontents.[100]



Freud provided the basis for the entire field of individual verbal psychotherapy. According to Donald H. Ford and Hugh B. Urban, "Later systems have differed about therapy and technique in certain respects, but all of them have been constructed around Freud's basic discovery that if one can arrange a special set of conditions and have the patient talk about his difficulties in certain ways, behavior changes of many kinds can be accomplished."[101] For Joel Kovel, "Freud with his methods and central insight remains the progenitor of modern therapy", even though psychoanalysis itself has "sunk to a relatively minor role so far as actual therapeutic practice goes."[102]

Jacques Lacan approached psychoanalysis through linguistics and literature. Lacan believed that Freud's essential work had been done prior to 1905, and concerned the interpretation of dreams, neurotic symptoms, and slips, which had been based on a revolutionary way of understanding language and its relation to experience and subjectivity. Lacan regarded ego psychology and object relations theory as based upon misreadings of Freud's work; for Lacan, the determinative dimension of human experience is neither the self (as in ego psychology) nor relations with others (as in object relations theory), but language. Lacan saw desire as more important than need, and considered it necessarily ungratifiable; in Stephen A. Mitchell and Margaret J. Black's words, "for Lacan, the child comes to desire above all else to be the completing object of the m(other's) desire."[103]

Wilhelm Reich developed ideas that Freud had developed at the beginning of his psychoanalytic investigation, but then superseded but never finally discarded; these were the concept of the Actualneurosis, and a theory of anxiety based upon the idea of dammed-up libido. In Freud's original view, what really happened to a person (the 'actual') determined the resulting neurotic disposition. Freud applied that idea both to infants and to adults; in the former case, seductions were sought as the causes of later neuroses, and in the latter incomplete sexual release. Unlike Freud, Reich retained the idea that actual experience, especially sexual experience, was of key significance. Kovel writes that by the 1920s, Reich had "taken Freud's original ideas about sexual release to the point of specifying the orgasm as the criteria of healthy function." Reich was also "developing his ideas about character into a form that would later take shape, first as 'muscular armour', and eventually as a transducer of universal biological energy, the orgone."[102]

Arthur Janov's primal therapy has been an influential post-Freudian psychotherapy. Joel Kovel writes that primal therapy resembles psychoanalytic therapy in its emphasis on early childhood experience, but nevertheless has profound differences with it. While Janov's theory is akin to Freud's early idea of Actualneurosis, he does not have a dynamic psychology but a nature psychology in which need is primary while wish is derivative and dispensable when need is met. Despite its surface similarity to Freud's ideas, Janov's theory lacks a strictly psychological account of the unconscious and belief in infantile sexuality. While for Freud there was a hierarchy of danger situations, for Janov the key event in the child's life is awareness that the parents do not love it.[102] Mark Pendergrast writes that Janov provided the prototype for the current trauma therapist.[104]

Journalist Ethan Watters and Professor of Sociology Richard Ofshe write, "There is no scientific evidence of...[a] purposeful unconscious, nor is there evidence that psychotherapists have special methods for laying bare our out-of-awareness mental processes."[105] They also write that, "Because of the massive investment the field of psychotherapy has made in the psychodynamic approach, the dying convulsions of the paradigm will not be pretty."[106]


Freud's theories have influenced the Frankfurt School and critical theory.[107] They influenced Frankfurt School theorist Herbert Marcuse, whose Eros and Civilization synthesized psychoanalysis with Marxism to argue that in a society of abundant material wealth, the need for political and sexual repression is no longer necessary. He argues, against Freud, that desire (eros) builds civilizations, rather than being tied to the death drive (aiming for the destruction of civilization).[108] Erich Fromm identifies Freud, together with Karl Marx and Albert Einstein, as the "architects of the modern age", while nevertheless remarking, "That Marx is a figure of world historical significance with whom Freud cannot even be compared in this respect hardly needs to be said."[109]

Paul Ricoeur considers Freud one of the masters of the "school of suspicion", alongside Karl Marx and Friedrich Nietzsche.[110] Ricoeur and Jürgen Habermas have helped create "a distinctly hermeneutic version of Freud", one which "claimed him as the most significant progenitor of the shift from an objectifying, empiricist understanding of the human realm to one stressing subjectivity and interpretation." Their hermeneutic interpretation of Freud has been criticized by Adolf Grünbaum, who argues that it radically misrepresents Freud's views.[111]

Bernard Williams writes that there has been hope that some psychoanalytical theories may "support some ethical conception as a necessary part of human happiness", but that in some cases the theories appear to support such hopes because they themselves involve ethical thought. In his view, while such theories may be better as channels of individual help because of their ethical basis, it disqualifies them from providing a basis for ethics.[112]


Head high portrait of man about sixty years old
Karl Popper was a critic of Freud.

Verdicts on the scientific merits of Freud's theories have differed. Gilbert Ryle calls Freud "psychology's one man of genius" and the influence of his teaching "deservedly profound" even though its allegories have been "damagingly popular",[113] while David Stafford-Clark calls him "a man whose name will always rank with those of Darwin, Copernicus, Newton, Marx and Einstein; someone who really made a difference to the way the rest of us can begin to think about the meaning of human life and society."[114] In contrast, Hans Eysenck claims that Freud "set psychiatry back one hundred years",[115] Peter Medawar, a Nobel Prize winning immunologist, made the oft-quoted remark that psychoanalysis is the "most stupendous intellectual confidence trick of the twentieth century",[116] and Richard Webster calls it "perhaps the most complex and successful" pseudoscience in history.[117]

Karl Popper, who argued that all proper scientific theories must be potentially falsifiable, claimed that Freud's psychoanalytic theories were presented in unfalsifiable form, meaning that no experiment or observation could ever prove them wrong.[118] Grünbaum considers Popper's critique of Freud flawed, arguing that Freud's theory that paranoia results from repressed homosexuality invites the falsifiable prediction that a decline in the repression of homosexuality will result in a corresponding decline in paranoia, thereby disproving Popper's claim that psychoanalytic propositions can never be proven wrong.[111]

According to a study that appeared in the June 2008 issue of The Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, while psychoanalysis remains influential in the humanities, it is regarded as "desiccated and dead" by psychology departments and textbooks. The New York Times commented that to psychoanalysts the report underscores "pressing questions about the relevance of their field and whether it will survive as a practice", noting that the marginalization of Freudian theory in psychology departments has been attributed to psychoanalysts being out of step with the way in which other disciplines in psychology have placed "emphasis on testing the validity of their approaches scientifically." Meanwhile, advances in neuroscience have "attracted new students and resources, further squeezing out psychoanalysis."[119]

Joseph LeDoux writes, "Like Freud before them, cognitive scientists reject the view handed down from Descartes that mind and consciousness are the same. However, the cognitive unconscious is not the same as the Freudian or dynamic unconscious. The term cognitive unconscious merely implies that a lot of what the mind does goes on outside of consciousness, whereas the dynamic unconscious is a darker, more malevolent place where emotionally charged memories are shipped to do mental dirty work. To some extent, the dynamic unconscious can be conceived in terms of cognitive processes, but the term cognitive unconscious does not imply these dynamic operations."[120]

Researchers in the emerging field of neuro-psychoanalysis, founded by South African neuroscientist Mark Solms,[121] have argued for Freud's theories, pointing out brain structures relating to Freudian concepts such as libido, drives, the unconscious, and repression.[122][123] Other clinical researchers have recently found empirical support for more specific hypotheses of Freud such as that of the "repetition compulsion" in relation to psychological trauma.[124] The theory of ego defense mechanisms has received empirical validation,[125] and the nature of repression, in particular, became one of the more fiercely debated areas of psychology in the 1990s.[126]


Shoulder high portrait of forty year old woman with short brownish hair wearing a buttoned sweater
Betty Friedan criticized Freud in The Feminine Mystique.[127]

Paul Robinson, observing that "Everyone knows that Freud has fallen from grace", suggests that the disenchantment with Freud can be traced to the revival of feminism.[111] Simone de Beauvoir criticized Freud and psychoanalysis in The Second Sex.[128] Betty Friedan criticized Freud and what she considered his Victorian view of women in The Feminine Mystique.[127] Freud's concept of penis envy was attacked by Kate Millett, whose Sexual Politics accused him of confusion and oversights.[129] Naomi Weisstein writes that Freud and his followers erroneously thought that his "years of intensive clinical experience" added up to scientific rigor.[130] Freud was also criticized by Shulamith Firestone and Eva Figes. In The Dialectic of Sex, Firestone argued that Freud was a "poet" who produced metaphors rather than literal truths; in her view, Freud, like feminists, recognized that sexuality was the crucial problem of modern life, but ignored the social context and failed to question society itself. Firestone interpreted Freudian "metaphors" in terms of the literal facts of power within the family. Juliet Mitchell defended Freud against de Beauvoir, Friedan, Millett, Figes, and Firestone in Psychoanalysis and Feminism, accusing them of misreading him and misunderstanding the implications of psychoanalytic theory for feminism.[128] Mitchell's views were in turn criticized by Jane Gallop in The Daughter's Seduction: Feminism and Psychoanalysis.[131]

Some French feminists, among them Julia Kristeva and Luce Irigaray, have been influenced by Freud as interpreted by Jacques Lacan.[132] Irigaray has produced a theoretical challenge to Freud and Lacan, using their theories against them to "put forward a coherent psychoanalytic explanation for theoretical bias. She claims that the cultural unconscious only recognizes the male sex, and details the effects of this unconscious belief on accounts of the psychology of women."[133]

Carol Gilligan writes that "The penchant of developmental theorists to project a masculine image, and one that appears frightening to women, goes back at least to Freud..." She sees Freud's criticism of women's sense of justice reappearing in the work of Jean Piaget and Lawrence Kohlberg. Gilligan notes that Nancy Chodorow, in contrast to Freud, attributes differences between the sexes not to anatomy but to the fact that "the early social environment differs for and is experienced differently by male and female children." Chodorow writes "against the masculine bias of psychoanalytic theory" and "replaces Freud's negative and derivative description of female psychology with a positive and direct account of her own."[134]

Public relations

File:Edward Bernays.jpg
Edward Bernays, known as the "father of public relations" for his advertising and propaganda work.
Freud's nephew Edward Bernays was the main founder of corporate public relations in the USA, applying propaganda techniques to influence cultural practices. Bernays believed Freud's theories of the unconscious could be tapped to generate wealth and achieve social control. For example, he theorized (with reference to Freud's electra complex) that cigarettes could be marketed to women as a phallic symbol of empowerment. The desire to consume goods endlessly was seen as necessary in an economic system that tends toward overproduction (and hence, underconsumption) and which had seen resistance from those - workers - who believed that their desires (for control, better working conditions, and better wages) were not being met in their society. This was the link between Freud's psychoanalysis and the creation of middle class mass consumption in the USA. Like Freud, he believed that this manipulation actually served a purpose in a healthy democracy, keeping the unruly desires of the id satisfied.[135]


Major works by Freud


See also


  1. Gresser, Moshe. Dual Allegiance: Freud As a Modern Jew. SUNY Press, 1994, p. 225
  2. Hergenhahn, BR. An introduction to the history of psychology. Thomson Wadsworth, 2005, p. 475
  3. Deborah P. Margolis, M.A.. "D.P. Morgalis, Freud and his Mother". Pep-web.org. http://www.pep-web.org/document.php?id=MPSA.014.0037A. Retrieved 2011-02-06. 
  4. Hothersall, D. 1995. History of Psychology, 3rd ed., Mcgraw-Hill:NY
  5. Pigman, G.W. (April 1995). "Freud and the history of empathy". The International journal of psycho-analysis 76 (Pt 2): 237–56. PMID 7628894 
  6. Gay, Peter. Freud: A Life for Our Time. London: Papermac, 1988, p.45.
  7. Paul Roazen, in Dufresne, Todd (ed). Returns of the French Freud: Freud, Lacan, and Beyond. New York and London: Routledge Press, 1997, p. 13
  8. Gay, Peter. Freud: A Life for Our Time. London: Papermac, 1988, pp. 77, 169.
  9. Gay, Peter. Freud: A Life for Our Time. London: Papermac, 1988, p. 76.
  10. 10.0 10.1 Eysenck, Hans. Decline and Fall of the Freudian Empire. Transaction Publishers, 2004
  11. Blumenthal, Ralph (24 December 2006). Hotel log hints at desire that Freud didn't repress. International Herald Tribune. http://www.iht.com/articles/2006/12/24/europe/web.1224freud.php 
  12. "Freud was a partially assimilated, mostly secular Jew…" Coming out Jewish: constructing ambivalent identities, by Jon Stratton; Psychology Press, 2000
  13. "Based on his close communication with Freud over a lifetime, Jones (1955) believes that Freud's Jewishness contributed greatly to his work and his firm convictions about his findings. Freud often referred to his ability to stand alone, if need be, without wavering or surrendering his intellectual and scientific discoveries, and he attributed this ability to his irreligious but strong Jewish identity in an antisemitic society, whereby he was accustomed to a marginal status and being set aside as different." The evolution and application of clinical theory; by Judith Marks Mishne; Simon and Schuster, 1993
  14. "Freud, Sigmund Totem and Taboo (New York: W.W. Norton & Co. 1950) p. xi ISBN 978-0-393-00143-3
  15. "Freudfile Sigmund Freud Life and Work – Jean-Martin Charcot". Freudfile.org. http://www.freudfile.org/charcot.html. Retrieved 2011-02-06. 
  16. Joseph Aguayo, Ph.D.. "Joseph Aguayo ''Charcot and Freud: Some Implications of Late 19th Century French Psychiatry and Politics for the Origins of Psychoanalysis'' (1986). Psychoanalysis and Contemporary Thought, 9:223–260". Pep-web.org. http://www.pep-web.org/document.php?id=pct.009.0223a. Retrieved 2011-02-06. 
  17. Kennard, Jerry (12 February 2008). AnxietyConnection.com Freud 101: Psychoanalysis
  18. Gay, Peter. Freud: A Life for Our Time. London: Papermac, 1988, pp. 65–66.
  19. Peter Gay points out that although Die Traumdietung was published on 4 November 1899, the date which incorrectly appeared on the title page was 1900. Gay, Peter (1998). Freud: a Life for Our Time. New York: Norton. p. 3. ISBN 978-0-393-31826-5. 
  20. Gay, Peter (29 March 1999). The TIME 100: Sigmund Freud. Time Inc.. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,990609-2,00.html. Retrieved 24 November 2007 
  21. Appignanesi, Lisa & Forrester, John. Freud's Women. London: Penguin Books, 2000
  22. Jones, E. Sigmund Freud: Life and Work. Hogarth Press, 1953, pp. 339-342.
  23. Masson, Jeffrey M. (ed.). The Complete Letters of Sigmund Freud to Wilhelm Fless, 1887-1904. Harvard University Press, 1985, pp. 268, 272.
  24. Webster, Richard. Why Freud Was Wrong. London: HarperCollins, 1995, pp. 253-254.
  25. Appignanesi, Lisa & Forrester, John. Freud's Women. London: Penguin Books, 1992, p.108
  26. Breger, Louis. Freud: Darkness in the Midst of Vision. Wiley, 2011, p.262
  27. Crews, Frederick (ed.). Unauthorized Freud: Doubters Confront a Legend. New York: Penguin Books, 1999, p. 143
  28. Borch-Jacobsen, Mikkel (2002). "How a fabrication differs from a lie". London Review of Books 22 (2). http://www.lrb.co.uk/v22/n08/mikkel-borch-jacobsen/how-a-fabrication-differs-from-a-lie. 
  29. 29.0 29.1 Rose, Louis (1998). The Freudian Calling: Early Psychoanalysis and the Pursuit of Cultural Science. Detroit: Wayne State University Press. p. 52. ISBN 9780814326213. http://books.google.ie/books?id=DTMnqDhTzNgC&pg=PA52. [dead link]
  30. Professor extraordinarius, or professor without a chair. Gay, Peter (1988). Freud : a life for our time. London: Dent. p. 153. ISBN 978-0-460-04761-6.  Makari, George (2008). Revolution in mind : the creation of psychoanalysis (Australian ed.). Carlton, Vic.: Melbourne University Publishing. p. 129. ISBN 978-0-522-85480-0. http://books.google.ie/books?id=uPWBHwLjeXsC&printsec&pg=PA129. [dead link]
  31. 31.0 31.1 31.2 Schwartz, Joseph (2003). Cassandra's daughter : a history of psychoanalysis. London: Karnac. p. 100. ISBN 978-1-85575-939-8. http://books.google.ie/books?id=zjw-9LEpR04C&pg=PA100. [dead link]
  32. Ellenberger, Henri F. (1970). The Discovery of the Unconscious : the History and Evolution of Dynamic Psychiatry ([Repr.] ed.). New York: Basic Books. pp. 443, 454. ISBN 978-0-465-01673-0. 
  33. Stekel's review appeared in 1902. In it he declared that Freud's work heraled, "a new era in psychology". Rose, Louis (1998). The Freudian Calling: Early Psychoanalysis and the Pursuit of Cultural Science. Detroit: Wayne State University Press. p. 52. ISBN 9780814326213. http://books.google.ie/books?id=DTMnqDhTzNgC&pg=PA52. . See also: Makari, George (2008). Revolution in Mind: the Creation of Psychoanalysis (Australian ed.). Carlton, Vic.: Melbourne University Publishing. p. 130. ISBN 978-0-522-85480-0. http://books.google.ie/books?id=uPWBHwLjeXsC&printsec&pg=PA130.  Boss, Japp; Groenendijk, Leendert (2007). "Marginalization through psychoanalysis: an introduction". In Japp Boss and Leendert Groenendijk (eds). The Self-Marginalization of Wilhelm Stekel: Freudian Circles Inside and Out. New York. p. 8. ISBN 978-0-387-32699-3. http://books.google.com/?id=xM2ZCFWADXUC&pg=PA8. 
  34. Rose, Louis (1998). "Freud and fetishism: previously unpublished minutes of the Vienna Psychoanalytic Society". Psychoanalytic Quartery 57: 147. http://www.pep-web.org/document.php?id=PAQ.057.0147A. 
  35. Reitler's family had converted to Catholicism. Makari, George (2008). Revolution in Mind: the Creation of Psychoanalysis (Australian ed.). Carlton, Vic.: Melbourne University Publishing. p. 130. ISBN 978-0-522-85480-0. http://books.google.ie/books?id=uPWBHwLjeXsC&printsec&pg=PA130. [dead link]
  36. Makari, George (2008). Revolution in Mind: the Creation of Psychoanalysis (Australian ed.). Carlton, Vic.: Melbourne University Publishing. pp. 130–131. ISBN 978-0-522-85480-0. http://books.google.ie/books?id=uPWBHwLjeXsC&printsec&pg=PA130. [dead link]
  37. Rose, Louis (1998). The Freudian Calling: Early Psychoanalysis and the Pursuit of Cultural Science. Detroit: Wayne State University Press. p. 52. ISBN 9780814326213. http://books.google.ie/books?id=DTMnqDhTzNgC&pg=PA52.  Makari, George (2008). Revolution in Mind: the Creation of Psychoanalysis (Australian ed.). Carlton, Vic.: Melbourne University Publishing. p. 130. ISBN 978-0-522-85480-0. http://books.google.ie/books?id=uPWBHwLjeXsC&printsec&pg=PA130. [dead link]
  38. Stekel, Wilhelm (2007). 'On the history of the psychoanalytic movmement'. Jap Bos (trans. and annot.). In Japp Boss and Leendert Groenendijk (eds). The Self-Marginalization of Wilhelm Stekel: Freudian Circles Inside and Out. New York. p. 131[dead link]
  39. 39.0 39.1 39.2 Gay, Peter (1988). Freud : a life for our time. London: Dent. p. 174. ISBN 978-0-460-04761-6. 
  40. The real name of "Little Hans" was Herbert Graf. Gay, Peter (1988). Freud : a life for our time. London: Dent. pp. 156, 176. ISBN 978-0-460-04761-6. 
  41. Gay, Peter (1988). Freud : a life for our time. London: Dent. p. 175. ISBN 978-0-460-04761-6. 
  42. Sulloway, Frank J. (1991). "Reassessing Freud's case histories: the social construction of psychoanalysis". Isis 82 (2): 266. 
  43. Ellenberger, Henri F. (1970). The Discovery of the Unconscious: the History and Evolution of Dynamic Psychiatry ([Repr.] ed.). New York: Basic Books. p. 455. ISBN 978-0-465-01673-0. 
  44. Three members of the Viennese Psychoanalytic Society resigned at the same time as Adler to establish the Society for Free Psychoanalysis. Six other members of the Viennese Psychoanalytic Society who attempted to retain links to both the Adlerian and Freudian camps were forced out after Freud insisted that they must chose one side or another. Makari, George (2008). Revolution in Mind: the Creation of Psychoanalysis (Australian ed.). Carlton, Vic.: Melbourne University Publishing. p. 262. ISBN 978-0-522-85480-0. http://books.google.com/books?id=uPWBHwLjeXsC&pg=PA262. 
  45. Ellenberger, Henri F. (1970). The Discovery of the Unconscious : the History and Evolution of Dynamic Psychiatry ([Repr.] ed.). New York: Basic Books. pp. 456, 584–85. ISBN 978-0-465-01673-0. 
  46. Ellenberger, Henri F. (1970). The Discovery of the Unconscious: the History and Evolution of Dynamic Psychiatry ([Repr.] ed.). New York: Basic Books. p. 456. ISBN 978-0-465-01673-0. 
  47. Gay, Peter. Freud: A Life for Our Time. London: Papermac, 1988, pp. 419-420
  48. "Freud, Sigmund, quote: What progress". Quotationsbook.com. 1939-09-23. http://quotationsbook.com/quote/34000/. Retrieved 2011-02-06. 
  49. 49.0 49.1 49.2 49.3 Woods, Richard (27 December 2009). "Sigmund Freud saved by Nazi admirer". The Sunday Times. http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/world/europe/article6968499.ece 
  50. 50.0 50.1 50.2 Gay, Peter. Freud: A Life for Our Time. London: Papermac, 1988
  51. Freud Museum London at www.freud.org.uk
  52. Strutzmann, Helmut (2008). "An overview of Freud's life". In Joseph P. Merlino, Marilyn S. Jacobs, Judy Ann Kaplan, K. Lynne Moritz. Freud at 150: 21st Century Essays on a Man of Genius. Plymouth. p. 33. ISBN 978-0-7657-0547-1. http://books.google.ie/books?id=ZqNPvtl_GhcC&pg=PA33. [dead link]
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  59. Borch-Jacobsen, Mikkel. Remembering Anna O.: A Century of Mystification. London: Routledge, 1996.
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  70. Byck, Robert. Cocaine Papers by Sigmund Freud. Edited with an Introduction by Robert Byck. New York, Stonehill, 1974.
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  81. Paul, Robert A. (1991). "Freud's anthropology". In James Neu ed. The Cambridge Companion to Freud. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 274. ISBN 978-0-521-37779-9. http://books.google.ie/books?id=J4UNrJlLGjoC&pg=PA274. [dead link]
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  84. Israëls, H. & Schatzman, M. (1993). "The Seduction Theory." History of Psychiatry, iv, pp. 40-41.
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  93. Jones, James W., 'Foreword' in Charles Spezzano and Gerald J. Gargiulo (eds), Soul on the Couch: Spirituality, Religion and Morality in Contemporary Psychoanalysis (Hillsdale, 2003), p. xi. Kepnes, Steven D. (Dec. 1986). "Bridging the gap between understanding and explanation approaches to the study of religion". Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 25 (4): 510. 
  94. Gay, Peter, editor, The Freud Reader (New York: W.W. Norton & Co. 1995) p. 435 ISBN 978-0-393-31403-8
  95. Chapman, Christopher N. (2007). Freud, Religion and Anxiety. Morrisville, NC. pp. 30–31. ISBN 978-1-4357-0571-5. http://books.google.com/books?id=WporR8_wh6cC&printsec=http://books.google.com/books?id=c0CBs5KeujoC&pg=PA30.  Freud, Sigmund Totem and Taboo (New York: W.W. Norton & Co. 1950) pp x, 142, ISBN 978-0-393-00143-3
  96. Rubin, Jeffrey B., 'Psychoanalysis is self-centred' in Charles Spezzano and Gerald J. Gargiulo (eds), Soul on the Couch: Spirituality, Religion and Morality in Contemporary Psychoanalysis (Hillsdale, 2003), p. 79. Freud, Sigmund, Civilization and its Discontents (New York: Norton 1962), pp. 11-12 ISBN 978-0-393-09623-1 Fuller, Andrew R. (2008). Psychology and religion : classical theorists and contemporary developments (4th ed.). Lanham, Md.: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. p. 33. ISBN 978-0-7425-6022-2. http://books.google.com/books?id=eYUWamPaO-IC&pg=PA33. 
  97. Costello, Stephen (2010). Hermeneutics and the psychoanalysis of religion. Bern: Peter Lang. pp. 72–77. ISBN 978-3-0343-0124-4. http://books.google.com/?id=ZabEx-Vyw-0C&printsec=frontcover#v=onepage&q&f=false. 
  98. Assoun, Paul-Laurent; translated by Richard L. Collier, (2002). Freud and Nietzsche. London: Continuum. p. 166. ISBN 978-0-8264-6316-6. http://books.google.ie/books?id=Y39rOOHV44UC&printsec=frontcover#v=onepage&q=holy%20communion&f=false.  Friedman, R.Z. (May 1998). "Freud's religion: Oedipus and Moses". Religious Studies 34 (2): 145.  Roustang, Mikkel Borch-Jacobsen ; translated by Catherine Porter (1989). The Freudian subject. Basingstoke: Macmillan. p. 271 n. 42. ISBN 978-0-333-48986-4. http://books.google.ie/books?id=GjqsAAAAIAAJ&pg=PA271.  Freud, Sigmund, Moses and Monotheism (New York: Vintage Books, 1967). Freud, Sigmund, An Autobiographical Study (New York: W.W. Norton & Co., 1952) pp. 130-131 ISBN 0393001566[dead link]
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Further reading

Substantial biographies

Authorized biography

  • Jones, Ernest. The Life and Work of Sigmund Freud. 3 vols. New York: Basic Books, 1953–1957

Other biographies

  • Gay, Peter. Freud: A Life for Our Time. London: Papermac, 1988; 2nd revised hardcover edition, Little Books (May 1, 2006), 864 pages, ISBN 978-1904435532; Reprint hardcover edition, W. W. Norton & Company (1988); trade paperback, W. W. Norton & Company (May 17, 2006), 864 pages, ISBN 978-0393328615
  • Puner, Helen Walker. Freud: His Life and His Mind. New York: Dell Publishing Co., 1947
  • Roazen, Paul. Freud and His Followers. New York: Knopf, 1975, hardcover; trade paperback, De Capo Press (March 22, 1992), 600 pages, ISBN 978-0306804724

Other works about Freud and the psychoanalytic movement

  • Cioffi, Frank. Freud and the Question of Pseudoscience. Peru, IL: Open Court, 1999.
  • Crews, Frederick. The Memory Wars: Freud's Legacy in Dispute. New York: The New York Review of Books, 1995.
  • Crews, Frederick. Unauthorized Freud: Doubters Confront a Legend. New York: Penguin Books, 1998.
  • Dufresne, Todd. Killing Freud: Twentieth-Century Culture and the Death of Psychoanalysis. New York: Continuum, 2003.
  • Dufresne, Todd, ed. Against Freud: Critics Talk Back. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2007.
  • Ellenberger, Henri. Beyond the Unconscious: Essays of Henri F. Ellenberger in the History of Psychiatry. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1993.
  • Ellenberger, Henri. The Discovery of the Unconscious: The History and Evolution of Dynamic Psychiatry. New York: Basic Books, 1970.
  • Esterson, Allen. Seductive Mirage: An Exploration of the Work of Sigmund Freud. Chicago: Open Court, 1993.
  • Gellner, Ernest. The Psychoanalytic Movement: The Cunning of Unreason. London: Fontana Press, 1993.
  • Grünbaum, Adolf. The Foundations of Psychoanalysis: A Philosophical Critique. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1984.
  • Grünbaum, Adolf. Validation in the Clinical Theory of Psychoanalysis: A Study in the Philosophy of Psychoanalysis. Madison, Connecticut: International Universities Press, 1993.
  • Hale, Nathan G., Jr. Freud and the Americans: The Beginnings of Psychoanalysis in the United States, 1876–1917. New York: Oxford University Press, 1971.
  • Hale, Nathan G., Jr. The Rise and Crisis of Psychoanalysis in the United States: Freud and the Americans, 1917–1985. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1995.
  • Hirschmüller, Albrecht. The Life and Work of Josef Breuer. New York University Press, 1989.
  • Jung, Carl Gustav. The Collected Works of C. G. Jung Volume 4: Freud and Psychoanalysis. Routledge & Kegan Paul Ltd, 1961.
  • Macmillan, Malcolm. Freud Evaluated: The Completed Arc. Cambridge, Mass.: The MIT Press, 1997.
  • Masson, Jeffrey Moussaieff. The Assault on Truth: Freud's Suppression of the Seduction Theory. New York: Pocket Books, 1998
  • Ricoeur, Paul. Freud and Philosophy. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1970.
  • Rieff, Philip. Freud: The Mind of the Moralist. Garden City, New York: Anchor Books, 1961
  • Roazen, Paul. Freud: Political and Social Thought. London: Hogarth Press, 1969.
  • Roth, Michael, ed. Freud: Conflict and Culture. New York: Vintage, 1998.
  • Stannard, David E. Shrinking History: On Freud and the Failure of Psychohistory. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1982.
  • Sulloway, Frank J. Freud, Biologist of the Mind: Beyond the Psychoanalytic Legend. London: Basic Books, 1979
  • Webster, Richard. Why Freud Was Wrong: Sin, Science and Psychoanalysis. Oxford: The Orwell Press, 2005.
  • Wollheim, Richard. Freud. Fontana, 1971.
  • Wollheim, Richard, and James Hopkins, eds. Philosophical Essays on Freud. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1982.

External links

Awards and achievements
Preceded by
Patrick Hastings
Cover of Time Magazine
27 October 1924
Succeeded by
Thomas Lipton

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